Windows Lab 1 - Creating Server01
In this lab we'll be creating our first virtual machine running Windows Server 2022 Data Center. We'll be using VirtualBox to create the virtual environment used for class. If you need to install VirtualBox on your own device follow the instructions here.
Create a Virtual Machine named Server01 using VirtualBox
Before we can install Windows Server 2022 we need to create a virtual machine. If you're using a lab computer you it should already have VirtualBox installed. If you're using your own device you're going to need to install VirtualBox if you haven't already.
Open VirtualBox, Click the New button in the tab bar to start the new virtual machine wizard.
We're going to name our virtual machine Server01. Type in Server01 for the name and choose Windows 2019 (64 bit) for the version. Click Continue. This will be the name of the virtual machine from the perspective of VirtualBox, not Windows. Later we'll have to rename the server to match in Windows.
Make sure your memory is set to 2048MB. Click Continue. If you're using your own laptop and you don't have a lot of RAM you can set this to 1024MB.
All our data will for the virtual machine will be stored in a virtual hard drive file on the physical server. This will let you move your virtual machines easily if you need to do so. The default option of Create a virtual hard drive now is what we want. Click Create.
We're going to use VirtualBox's default disk image format. If we wanted this virtual machine to be compatible with other virtual machine products we could select those formats here. The default option of VDI (VirtualBox Disk Image) is fine. Click Continue.
We don't want to take up a lot of space on the lab computers or your devices so we're going to use dynamically allocated disks. These will grow as we add to the servers. Keep Dynamically allocated selected and click Continue. In a production environment we may choose a fixed size for the higher speed and to help make sure we don't over commit on disk space.
Change the hard drive size to 100.00GB. Since we're using the dynamically allocated option it won't create a hard drive file on the physical computer that's 100GB. It will grow as we add content to it, which is what we want in the lab environment. Click Create.
Changing Settings on our new Virtual Machine
Now we have a virtual machine named Server01. The next thing we need to do is change some settings on it. We're going to set the network card to an internal mode with promiscuous mode enabled. This will let our virtual machines talk to each other on a network created inside the machine. This will prevent our machines from effecting other students virtual machines. Then we're going to put the installation media in the disk drive so we can install Windows Server 2022.
Make sure Server01 is selected on the left side then click Settings.
Select the Display tab. Then check the box for 3D Acceleration. If your device has a high DPI screen you may need to change the scaling factor so things aren't tiny. This can always be changed after so you can tweak it until it's correct for your device. On my device 200% works well.
Select the Network tab. We're going to set our network card to Internal Network. This will make sure our servers don't conflict with others in the class. Open the Advanced options and make sure you set Promiscuous Mode to Allow All. This will allow our virtual machines to talk to each other within the physical machine.
Now we're going to insert the Windows install ISO into the drive. Click Storage in the tab bar, then select the empty disk drive on the left side. On the right click the disk icon, then click Choose a disk file.
Browse to the folder that contains the materials for this class. If you're using a lab computer they'll be located in C:\CIS232. Select Windows Server 2022 2108.3 64Bit. Click Open, then click Ok. This will put the disk in the virtual disk drive.
Installing Windows Server 2022
Now that we have a virtual machine created we're going to install Windows Server 2022.
Verify the settings then click Start to boot up the virtual machine. This is equivalent of pressing the power button on a physical computer.
The computer will boot off the Windows disk in the drive. The Windows installer will start, verify English Language, time and currency are selected, and the keyboard is set the the US, then click Next.
Notice the option to repair your computer, this could help you in the future to recover a server that's become corrupt or is failing for some reason. In this case we're doing a clean install, click Install now.
Select Windows Server 2022 Datacenter (Desktop Experience) If you select the option without desktop experience you'll only be able to mange the server locally using PowerShell. In a later lab you'll learn how you can use a tool called Server Manager to remotely manage servers. But for our purposes we want the desktop experience. Click Next.
Check the box to accept the Microsoft Software License Terms then click Next.
Select Custom. This will let us do a clean install. An upgrade isn't an option since the hard drive is empty. There's nothing to upgrade.
We're going to use the entire drive for the installation. We don't need to create a partition and format it, the installer will do that for us. We can click on Dive 0 Unallocated Space and click Next.
Now we sit back and wait for the install to finish. After it finishes the virtual machine will restart. During the restart process you will see something that says press any key to boot from CD or DVD, ignore this message. We don't want to boot from the disk a second time, we want to boot from the system's internal virtual hard drive. If you press a key at that point you will start the installation process all over again.
The first thing you'll be asked to do after the install is to create a local administrator password. We'll be using P@ssw0rd for this class. Between the w and the r is the number zero. Click Finish.
Install Guest Additions for VirtualBox
The first thing we're going to do is install the paravirtualization drivers for the virtualization software. In VirtualBox these are called Guest Additions. This will enable mouse pointer integration, shared folders, better video support, time synchronization, shared clipboard as well as other handy features. This will also allow you to change the screen resolution by resizing the VirtualBox window.
First we have to log into the virtual machine. We need to send a Control + Alt + Delete to the virtual machine. If we press Control + Alt + Delete on our physical machine it will intercepted by the physical machine. So we need another way to send it to the virtual machine. One way is to click the Input menu, then Keyboard, then Insert Ctrl-Alt-Del. Alternatively you can press the Host key + Delete. By default the Host key is set to the command key or right control key. On a MacBook you can press fn + Command + Delete.
We need to put the virtual disk for the Guest Additions in the virtual disk drive. Click the Devices drop down and select Insert Guest Additions CD image...
Once the disk is in the drive we need to browse to the disk and run the setup program. Start by opening File Explorer. You can do this by clicking the File Explorer icon in the quick launch area.
In the File Manager select the disk drive on the left side then double click on VBoxWindowsAdditions to open the installer.
The installation wizard will open and display a summary of what it will do, click Next.
The installation wizard will ask you where to install the program, the default location is fine, click Next.
You'll be presented with a list of optional components, the defaults are what we want, click Install.
During the installation process some drivers will need to be installed. The operating system will stop and ask if you want to install the software. Click Install.
Once complete click Finish to reboot the virtual machine.
After the virtual machine restarts login as administrator with P@ssw0rd for the password. You'll need to send a Ctrl + Alt + Del to the virtual machine before you can log in.
When Windows logs in you'll be presented with a message asking you to try out Windows Admin Center. Check the box to not show it again and close the window. This server is going to be a domain controller so we can't the Windows Admin Center as of this writing.
Now we're looking at the Server Manager. This tool will let use setup and configure the server. It presents to you a list of items in a quick start list that should be completed to make sure the server is setup properly. The first thing we're going to do is click Configure this local server.
This will bring us to a screen with information about our server. We can see the name needs to be changed to Server01. Click the current name of the server.
In the System Properties box that comes up click the Change button. Note: Typing anything in the computer description field will not change the name of the computer.
Type in Server01 for the name of the server and click Ok. You will be notified that a restart is needed. click Ok. That will return you to the System Properties window, click Close. At that point you'll be prompted to restart your computer, click Restart Now.
After the server restarts log back in. The Server Manager should open automatically, click Configure this local server again.
Now we're going to set the IP address of the server. Click the text next to Ethernet.
This will open the Network Connections window. We could have gone here manually, but the Server Manager provides quick access to these locations to help up setup the server quickly. In Network Connections double click on the Ethernet adapter, then click the Properties button. Double click on Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4). Enter in the following IP information.
IP address: 192.168.10.1
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
Default gateway: 192.168.10.254
Preferred DNS server: 192.168.10.1
Click Ok and close all windows to return to Server Manager.
Server Manager is set to scan the system every 10 minutes for changes. If you click the refresh button on the top it will force it to rescan the computer. After that you should the IP address you set next to Ethernet. Now we're going to change the time zone to the Eastern time zone. Click the text next to Time zone in Server Manager.
Click the Change time zone button then select Eastern Time from the drop down. Click Ok for both windows.
Now that the server is configured we're going to shut it down so we can take a snapshot of the virtual machine. Shut down the server by click the Windows button in the lower left corner of the screen followed by the power icon, then click Shut down.
When you shut down a server you need to provide a reason for the shut down. This information will be logged to the event viewer. We're going to choose Operating System: Reconfiguration (Planned) then click Continue.
Once the server's off switch from Details mode to Snapshots mode in VirtualBox. Click the icon to the right of Server01 and select Snapshots.
Click the Take button then enter a name from the snapshot. I called mine Lab 1 Complete. If something happens during the next lab you'll be able to revert to this snapshot and restart lab without needing to rebuild the server.
After the snapshot is computer you can switch back to Details view.